What should primary teacher specialisation look like? Another lesson from Japan

Katie Roberts-Hull

Learning First’s new report, Australia’s primary challenge, explores how to develop more subject expertise among primary school teachers. In this fifth blog in our seriesKatie Roberts-Hull examines an initial teacher education program in Japan that is designed to ensure primary teaching graduates are fully prepared for the subjects they will teach.

Primary school teachers have a complex and tough job. They are responsible for establishing the foundational skills that students will use to build knowledge for a lifetime, and they often have to do this across four or five different subject areas. While many may assume that they only need basic knowledge for the role (how hard can it be to teach grade 3 maths?), in fact primary teachers need subject expertise that is quite specialised and takes years to acquire. For example, to teach reading, primary teachers must understand what a phoneme is, and how to teach phonemic awareness. Most adults don’t have this knowledge, and teachers need quality training to be able to teach it effectively. 

Initial teacher education is where most teacher candidates begin to develop knowledge specific to teaching. In Australia, where some teachers’ own primary and secondary school education may be lacking, initial teacher education provides a critical opportunity to improve candidates’ subject expertise before they teach.

Primary teacher education programs in Australia are now being required to design specialist programs. Each primary teacher candidate will have to choose one subject area in which to develop deeper knowledge. It’s a big shift in teacher education curriculum, but ideally teachers will leave programs prepared to teach all subjects, but with expert knowledge in one area.

So what does a strong primary specialist program look like? It should:

  • Focus on the foundational knowledge that teachers need at the primary school level
  • Emphasise pedagogical content knowledge (e.g. skills tied to specific subject areas), not just general pedagogical skills
  • Closely align training to the national school curriculum

One great example of a program that follows all these principles is Naruto University of Education in Tokushima, Japan. In Japan primary teachers teach all subjects, but they select one area of specialisation in initial teacher education.

Naruto University of Education

To prepare teachers to be generalists, all prospective teachers – primary and secondary – are required to take “core” courses in each subject area. These courses are developed in collaboration by a subject expert, a pedagogy expert, and a veteran teacher. The three work together to make sure the courses emphasise pedagogical content knowledge and the combination of theory and practice. Teacher candidates take three core courses in each of ten subjects: Japanese, English, society, mathematics, science, music, arts, physical education, technology, and home economics. These three core courses cover the basics of the subject, and student teachers then choose one subject in which to specialise.

For example, the compulsory core maths courses explain the basics of teaching maths in primary and lower secondary school. They include instruction on:

  • The school curriculum (referencing the Ministry of Education’s Course of Study)
  • How young children learn maths
  • Teaching methods for mathematics
  • Overview of key content taught in early years, upper primary, and lower secondary
  • Practice creating lesson plans and micro teaching

If a teacher candidate decides to specialise in maths, she takes the equivalent of a major. The maths program is designed to have a foundation in arithmetic, but includes courses in more advanced mathematics as well. There are two “fundamental mathematics” courses that are not required, but they are recommended to students who lack a strong maths background from school. In practice, almost all primary mathematics majors take these two courses.

The maths major includes courses focused on both content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. Content knowledge courses include: arithmetic; geometry; algebra; fundamental mathematics I (mathematics learnt in high school, such as quadratic functions); fundamental mathematics II (bridging high school to university level maths, such as derivatives and integration); and analysis (advanced calculus subsequent to fundamental mathematics courses). Geometry, algebra, and analysis have subsequent and more advanced elective sections.

Maths majors also take pedagogical content knowledge courses on teaching methods for each key area of primary mathematics. These courses teach the basics of primary mathematics assessment and require sample lesson plan design and a simulated practice lesson.

This example shows that it is possible to create a rigorous primary speciality, while still preparing teachers for generalist roles. Importantly, Naruto’s curriculum focuses on foundational skills for primary teaching, like arithmetic, instead of the common Australian practice of having student teachers take advanced maths courses that are much less relevant for teaching young children. Australian teacher education programs can learn from examples like these as they design new primary teacher preparation courses.   

More details on the Naruto University of Education curriculum can be found here in the appendix of Australia’s Primary Challenge.

Naruto University of Education course requirements for a major in primary mathematics (2016)

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Note: The arrows show course prerequisites
*Fundamental mathematics I and II are “electives,” but in practice almost all primary mathematics majors will complete them.

 

What can initial teacher education learn from medical education?

Leah Ginnivan

Learning First’s new report, Australia’s Primary Challenge, explores why primary teachers should develop more specialist expertise and how they can do so.

This post examines another model for instilling greater content expertise in our teachers, especially during their initial teacher education.

Initial teacher education reformers often invoke the medical model of training as a framework for improving initial teacher education. But what exactly about this model applies to teaching teachers?

Practising medicine and teaching a class of schoolchildren differ in many ways. Yet both professions are based on skilled decision-making, both require practical application of academic knowledge to people with different levels of functioning. A beginning teacher might understand fractions and theories of child development, but the test is whether he knows them deeply enough to be able to help a frustrated eight-year-old make sense of a problem and choose a strategy to solve it. Similarly, a junior doctor might be able to recite the risks and benefits of an anti-clotting medication, but she won’t be judged as competent if she can’t then advise, prescribe, interpret tests and communicate with patient and their families.

Building the right kind of practical skills and academic understanding is therefore a challenge for both teacher education and medical education. Just as no doctor can learn all that must be known in a lecture theatre, expertise in teaching comes from experience. Both medical and teacher education programs are under pressure to fit more into a short few years. Both must make trade-offs about what’s essential to teach early on and what can be learned on the job.

Medical schools are widely seen to integrate this practical knowledge in a more coherent way than most teacher education programs. Although pedagogical approaches vary widely among medical schools, our understanding of what should constitute initial medical education is well defined. Every medical school in Australia must show that its graduates have the skills to “practise safely and efficiently under supervision as interns’ as well as ‘a strong foundation for lifelong learning and for further training in any branch of medicine”.

Under standards developed by the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership, graduate teachers are expected to “demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the concepts, substance and structure of the content and teaching strategies of the teaching area,” as well as strategies for differentiating teaching according to student needs, among other things. Yet teachers in Australia are often unsupported in their early years of practice, and supervision is nominal. Too often, ongoing professional development is perfunctory. Most worryingly, as we show in our new report, Australia’s primary challenge, too many teachers are entering classrooms lacking a strong foundational knowledge in the subjects they are teaching.

How does medical education ensure that a junior doctor is safe to practise under supervision? Firstly, selection into medical education is rigorous. In Australia, students must demonstrate academic capacity, general reasoning ability (measured through an aptitude test) and often sit an interview to be granted admission. Many medical schools require entrants to have scientific ability, including scores on the aptitude test, and prerequisites in biomedical sciences. While selection processes are contested, attrition rates in medical school are very low in Australia (an average of 2.1 per cent a year for domestic students in the first year and 1 per cent in subsequent years). By contrast around 40 per cent of undergraduate teaching entrants will not complete their course.

In Australian medical schools, foundational knowledge is developed through a mix of lectures, practicals, and clinical exposure. Most students are given many opportunities to consolidate knowledge and skills by practising in clinical environments. Skills such as differential diagnosis are taught through group work, clinical teaching, and in a classroom or seminar setting. Generally, active clinicians have a central role in teaching, and medical schools actively foster close ties with hospitals and research institutes to create a pool of expertise for teaching staff and student mentorship.

Assessment includes both exams on basic scientific content, as well as mock physical examinations, attendance at practical sessions, portfolios demonstrating clinical reasoning, and assignments. In the Objective Structured Clinical Exam, for example, clinicians examine students on an aspect of clinical skill, for instance taking an accurate blood pressure or a drug and alcohol history from a ‘patient’ (usually an actor). The range of assessment at medical school is intended to create a richer picture of how a student is progressing.

Perhaps most importantly, medical education is never complete. Medical graduates must complete an internship year before attaining general registration with the Medical Board of Australia. Internship is a formal process involving structured teaching as well as compulsory rotations in medicine and surgical wards, and close supervision. This is generally followed by another year as a resident, before being accepted into a specialty training program, which generally lasts for two to seven years. Further education, and demonstrated mastery as judged by clinical peers, is needed to progress into senior roles. Although the calibre of clinical teaching and supervision certainly varies, the breadth and scope of experience of young doctors is intended to make it clear which areas of knowledge and skill need further development. 

In contrast, a first-year graduate teacher in a primary school is often responsible for 20 or more young students at different stages of learning. She or he may have contact with mentor teachers, but they will rarely collaborate on specific strategies and opportunities for feedback and supervision are limited. Australia’s Primary Challenge details how four high-performing systems – Finland, Hong Kong, Japan and Shanghai -- provide this kind of support for new primary school teachers.

Lastly, academic research into medical education is a thriving field, with ongoing attempts to refine what constitutes effective education both at the initial level and throughout a medical career. Despite the profound importance of teachers, we know comparatively little about the specific techniques ITE providers should employ. The good news is that revived interest in improving teacher quality means that universities, schools, and individual teachers can experiment and contribute greatly.

Classroom teaching is hard work. It should also be viewed as highly skilled work, but too often it is not. The task for educators is to emulate the medical profession and develop rigorous processes, both during teacher education and in schools, that would fully equip teachers with the skills they need to properly do their job.

Leah Ginnivan, a former associate of Learning First, is a medical student.

What schools everywhere can learn from Japanese lesson study

Samara Cooper

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Learning First’s new report, Australia’s primary challenge, explores why primary schools in Australia should develop more subject expertise among teachers, and how they could do so by drawing on the example of schools in Finland, Japan, Shanghai and Hong Kong. This third blog in a series examines how the Japanese school system builds in expertise from a teacher’s first school experience to her last, through a process known as lesson study.

Imagine you’re a teacher who gets the chance to spend weeks preparing just one lesson. You go back and forth with colleagues on how best to design the lesson to meet student learning needs, anticipating potential questions and student errors in understanding. Then you deliver it to your class while a group of colleagues watches and studies whether students are engaged and learning. After the lesson, you sit down with the group and discuss how it went, how the students approached the task and how the lesson can be improved next time.

In Japan this process is called jugyokenkyu, or lesson study. Jugyo means teaching and learning, kenkyu means study or research lesson study. Lesson study is used in practicums (supervised placements in schools during initial teacher education), in teacher induction and in teachers’ everyday work. It is the main form of professional development throughout a teacher’s career. Japanese lesson study has become widely known, and many other countries – from the US to China to Zambia – have implemented similar programs.

Lesson study is used to help teachers develop the expertise to teach a subject. Deeply rooted in practice, it incorporates much of what is known about good adult learning and high quality professional development. In particular:

  • Lesson study is not undertaken by individual teachers but is a whole school, collaborative process. Many schools choose a broad research theme at the start of the year. They then create a schedule for lesson planning, with multiple research lessons (lessons observed by and discussed with colleagues) to take place throughout the year. Within the school-wide theme, smaller groups of teachers choose a more specific topic for study, based on an analysis of student learning needs. Together they plan and carry out two or three lesson study cycles a year.
  • Lesson study focuses on developing subject expertise in a way that incorporates everything a teacher needs to know and do to improve student learning. It involves subject-specific groups of teachers analysing student reactions and thought patterns and designing lessons to best teach the content. The collaborative nature of lesson study means that new teachers learn directly from more experienced peers who have deep teaching expertise in that subject. It can also make for much more creative teaching, as teachers debate how to impart knowledge in a way that grabs students. Writing a book on education in Japan in the early 1990s, American researcher Catherine Lewis discovered that Japanese teachers had devised many engaging ways to show primary students how to figure out the area of a parallelogram, whereas it had been taught to her as a formula to memorise when she was in school in the US.
  • Lesson study focusses on student learning. It relies on the ability of others to observe and analyse not the teacher’s performance but its impact on the students. It is very important for other teachers to carefully observe the students because a lot of teachers don’t realise that the way they are teaching is not advancing students’ learning. Teachers can perform lesson after lesson and never realise that the way they are teaching is not getting through. Other teachers in their classroom can observe not only the teaching but the way students are learning (or not).
  • Lesson study devotes a significant amount of teacher time to planning and reflection. A typical lesson study cycle takes at least five weeks. Planning for a single research lesson can involve 10 to 15 hours of meetings. It is a slow and considered process. At the end of the year, teachers will often write an action research report that pulls together all their learning, including a detailed lesson plan, summaries of their professional learning and questions to consider for future research lessons. This way learning is always built upon previous knowledge and never lost.

Lesson study is not about creating the perfect lesson. It is about establishing collaborative practices that explicitly tie teacher professional learning to student learning. Once such practices become established, schools become true learning organisations for both teachers and students. The work of Learning First focusses on how to build these organisations. Lesson study is one valid approach, and other systems have much to learn from it.

The stages of lesson study

 

Samara Cooper is a former associate at Learning First. Read Australia’s Primary Challenge.

Time for teacher educators to step up on primary teacher specialisation

Jacqueline Magee

Learning First’s new report, Australia’s primary challenge: how to lift teacher quality in early school years, argues that Australian primary school teachers should specialise in subject areas such as mathematics, science, and literacy. It sounds like a controversial proposal, a transformation of the ideal of generalist teachers that has sustained Australian primary school teaching for many decades. In fact, the idea of primary teacher specialisation is growing among leading Australian educators and is now part of Commonwealth Government policy.

The research is increasingly clear that strong teacher subject expertise significantly improves student learning. Australia’s primary challenge shows how high-performing systems such as Shanghai, Finland, Japan and Hong Kong develop teacher expertise through specialisation. All four systems – even Finland and Japan, which have generalist primary school teachers, as Australia does -- encourage teachers to develop their practice in just one or two subject areas, both during initial teacher education (ITE) and in their professional learning on the job.

Drawing on this evidence, Australia’s Teacher Education Ministerial Advisory Group (TEMAG) recommended in its 2015 report, Action Now: Classroom Ready Teachers, that primary school teachers be supported to specialise their teaching practice in science, mathematics and languages. In a move with significant implications for prospective primary teaching candidates and higher education institutions, the Australian Government accepted TEMAG’s recommendation that “higher education providers equip all primary pre-service teachers with at least one subject specialisation.” ITE providers are now on notice that they are required to make this happen.

This new primary specialisation requirement is now part of the Australian Institute of Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) National Program Standards and will be assessed by ITE program accreditation panellists convened in each state and territory.

The new primary specialisation standard requires ITE providers to establish clearly defined pathways within programs that lead to specialisations in key areas of demand. Providers are also expected to assess graduates on their expert content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, and what highly effective teaching looks like, in their area of specialisation. Finally, provider annual reports must publish the specialisations they make available, and the number of graduates per specialisation.

These requirements sound very general, but for many teacher education providers they represent significant reform. To add clarity, AITSL published more detailed advice on the new specialisation requirements early this year. The AITSL guidance emphasises the importance of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, but it is up to providers to decide the exact curriculum for the specialisations.

It is therefore a critical time for the future of primary teacher education. The plans ITE providers are making for primary specialisation have the potential to significantly improve the subject expertise of teachers in key areas. There is also a big risk that these efforts could fall flat, meeting minimum requirements but not instilling more rigor into primary teacher preparation. ITE providers must carefully construct primary specialist curricula, learning from other systems that have prepared highly-skilled teachers for decades. Australia’s primary challenge provides examples of teacher education curricula in countries such as Japan and Finland, which similarly prepare generalist teachers with one subject speciality. A future blog post will look at one example in more depth.

Time will tell whether these reforms will have the impact TEMAG and the Australian Government intended. If done well, a greater focus on developing teacher subject expertise will increase student learning, provide overdue recognition for the complexity of primary school teaching, and make teacher workload more manageable.

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Why Australian primary school teachers should specialise

Katie Roberts-Hull

We open our new blog with a series of posts accompanying the launch of our report, Australia’s Primary Challenge.

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Alarm about the performance of Australian school students in PISA and other international tests is growing. Australians are falling behind students in many other advanced nations. In maths, the proportion of Australian high performers in PISA tests has halved, to 11 per cent, over the past 14 years. Meanwhile the proportion of low performers has shot up – they now outnumber high performers two to one.

This week Learning First publishes a report, Australia’s primary challenge, that shows how Australia can lift its game by learning from four of the world’s high-performing school systems: Hong Kong, Japan, Finland, and Shanghai. These systems all ensure that their students are equipped to read and do foundational maths from the earliest years of school. In these systems, the most effective teachers do not just know their subjects (content knowledge) they also how to teach them (pedagogical content knowledge).

Australian primary school teachers are likely to be generalists, teaching all or many subjects. Because all teachers need deep subject expertise to teach well, primary teachers have a unique problem – how can they develop expert knowledge in each of the many subjects they are teaching?

Specialisation, encouraging teachers to focus on just one or a few subjects, is one way to help teachers develop deep expertise. Specialisation can take many forms. In Shanghai and Hong Kong, primary teachers only teach one or a few subjects. In Japan and Finland, primary school teachers teach all subjects, but require teacher candidates to specialise in their initial teacher education (ITE). Australia is beginning to encourage primary teacher specialisation in ITE, which will be addressed in a future Learning First blog post. This post will focus on the different options for primary specialisation after ITE, with teacher roles in schools. 

Specialisation in schools

In the US and Australia, there is concern that low-quality teacher education and development has led to a vicious cycle – where teachers with less knowledge produce students with less knowledge, who then become teachers with less knowledge. It’s hard to imagine breaking out of this cycle without allowing teachers the opportunity to develop expertise in one subject area at a time.

While there is little rigorous research on teacher role specialisation, it has been shown to offer several potential benefits:

  • Increased subject expertise: With fewer subjects to teach, teachers can go deeper into planning, preparing and undertaking professional learning for their subject(s). They have more time to develop their pedagogical content knowledge and gain more confidence in their teaching abilities.
  • Decreased workload: Teachers who prepare for fewer subjects might work less and worry and burn out less, particularly in the first few years of teaching.
  • Teachers can focus on subjects that most interest them: Depending on school need, teachers with a passion for a subject can ideally focus on it more.

One potential and important downside to in-school specialisation is diminished student-teacher relationships. Teachers who teach only one or two subjects have more students and do not know them as well as generalist (i.e. self-contained) teachers do.

There are ways to combat this risk, including a method popular in Shanghai and Finland: teacher “looping”. Teacher looping is a practice in which teachers follow the same group of students, teaching them from one grade level to the next. Practices like looping can improve relationships because teachers have more time getting to know students.

Three models of specialisation

If primary teachers specialise in a subject during ITE, schools can choose one of these three models to ensure teachers take the most advantage of their speciality.

Fully specialised – only teach one subject

It may seem extreme to think of primary school teachers as only teaching one subject, but most schools to already have specialist teachers in arts, music, and PE. It’s odd that we assume specialist skills are needed for these classes, but not for maths or literacy.

In Shanghai, primary school teachers are very specialised. A primary maths teacher will study maths in ITE, and then essentially just teach maths. This allows teachers to choose their preferred subject area, develop deep knowledge, and improve their skills over time.

Schools that want to go this route should be ensure they consider ways to mitigate any negative impact on student-teacher relationships.

Partially specialised – teach two or three subjects

If primary schools don’t want to go for full specialisation, teachers could specialise in one subject in ITE, and teach that, plus one or two more subjects. In Hong Kong, primary teachers who teach science also teach social studies and technology. They have fewer students than with full specialisation, but they still get many of the benefits of teaching fewer subjects.

Generalist teacher with specialisation

In Japan, primary school teachers teach all subjects, but in ITE they choose one in which to specialise. A primary teacher who is a maths specialist will deeply study primary maths in ITE, and get a short overview of all the other subjects he or she will teach. Many schools then hire teachers purposefully to ensure a good mix of specialities, and the teachers grow to become curriculum or subject leaders in the school in their chosen areas.

Whatever the model, schools need to design an effective professional learning culture that instils subject expertise. Future blog posts will cover the subject-specific professional learning models which are essential for making primary specialists effective.

Katie Roberts-Hull is Manager at Learning First.

How can we create effective professional learning? Lessons from high-performing systems

In any district, state or country, when student learning stagnates or falls, the response is universal: we must improve teaching to improve learning. All of the evidence shows that this is the right response. But it’s incredibly difficult. We spend millions of dollars on teacher professional development, but it’s not having the desired impact on our kids’ learning.

But in some high-performing systems it is working. What makes these systems different? What steps can other systems take to make professional learning effective?

Too often, children from low-income communities do not receive a great education, and in several education systems, the number of high-performing students is shrinking. The response to these problems is almost universal: to focus on improving teaching to increase kids’ learning.  

It is the right objective, but while there are pockets of success, the money invested in teacher professional development has not resulted in improvement in most schools. It is incredibly difficult to improve teaching and learning across tens of thousands of classrooms. Too few school systems succeed in making the transition. But for those that do, the benefits to children are immense, and the working lives of teachers improve dramatically.

Too often, a typical teacher reaches the end of the year exhausted. She is enthusiastic about educating children, but she often feels overwhelmed by the complexity of the job. She sits in her office knowing she has had success with many of her students but she wishes for more success for them and feels a bit disappointed with her opportunities to develop her professional expertise. She has technically clocked on a lot of ‘PD hours’ going to seminars and workshops, but she remembers many of them as being sort of boring and not really relevant to issues she was facing in her classroom. She only received feedback from a classroom observation once, and she never got the chance to view other teachers’ classes, like she was hoping to. It is so hard for her to improve her teaching – to help the kids she is having trouble reaching – when no-one looks at what she does and tells her how to improve. She was assigned a mentor in her school, and although the mentor was helpful for administrative questions, she didn’t receive much advice after someone has actually watched her teach. She knows she is not alone. Many teachers around the world have access to professional development, but most teachers report little impact on their actual teaching.

Learning First’s new report Beyond PD: Teacher professional learning in high-performing systems examines systems that have made the transition, namely, British Columbia, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Singapore. These systems vary in their geography, history and culture but all have a similar strategy to improve teaching and learning.

So, why is professional learning having a real impact in these systems? What are the steps other systems can take to refine their improvement strategies?

First, ensure that teacher professional learning is focused on an improvement cycle that begins and ends with student learning. The topic of teacher professional development should be determined by the learning needs of students in a classroom. Teaching is developed to address these learning needs. Professional development should not be considered effective unless it actually improves student learning.

Second, develop a strategy that changes how teachers and school leaders work in schools. To achieve this, reforms should extend well beyond traditional professional development policies. This requires changes in:

  • How we hold schools accountable – increasing accountability for the quality of teaching and the development of teachers;
  • How we develop our school leaders – high-performing systems have created new leadership positions in schools to develop teachers and improve professional learning. These new leaders, like their school principals, are specifically trained in how to use the improvement cycle to continually improve teachers and their teaching; and
  • How we target school resourcing to make sure teachers have enough time to focus on professional learning. 

Over time, this blend of policies can have a profound impact. Professional learning becomes central to teachers’ jobs. It is not an add-on. It is not something done on Friday afternoons or for a few days at either end of the school year. Teacher professional learning is how educators improve student learning; it is how they improve schools; and it is how they are evaluated in their jobs. 

Professional learning that starts and ends with student learning

Professional learning programs in high-performing systems follow an improvement cycle in schools that is anchored in student learning. It is not the name of the program that is important – whether it is a mentoring program or a professional learning team – but whether it functions on an effective improvement cycle that follows these three steps:

First, teachers assess students to identify their learning needs. So teachers in a primary school may look at the data and realise they have a problem in Grade 3 maths. They then deeply analyse student learning in this area (mainly through assessment) to better diagnose where students are and are not learning.

Second, they develop the teaching practices that meet the student learning needs identified in step 1. So after diagnosing the key areas for improvement, these teachers then draw on experts and look at the evidence on how to improve instruction. They pick the most effective strategies and try them in their school.

Finally, they evaluate the impact of these new practices on student learning, refining practice along the way. As these teachers and school leaders try new methods of teaching, they evaluate whether teaching is improving and how students are affected. Teachers and school leaders observe each other's lessons and provide feedback on how to improve teaching and learning. If the new practices are working, teachers share what they have learned throughout the school. If they are not, then teachers analyse why and further refine instruction.

A new teacher in Shanghai is nervous as she prepares to face her class of 45 students for the first time. Her learning curve over her first weeks, months and years is steep, but she knows that she can expect great support. She has two mentors: one provides subject-specific guidance, the other general teaching advice. Her mentors know that they will not be promoted unless they help her improve. They observe her classroom teaching on a regular basis, and she observes her mentors’ classes to learn and work on those aspects of her teaching that are most critical to her students. In between classes, she regularly attends research groups with other teachers to analyse specific teaching and learning issues in their classrooms. None of this is easy, but it is all focused on what her students most need. This makes her job easier as her development is specifically aimed at the teaching and learning issues she is most struggling with. Expectations for her development are high.

The improvement cycle is not new, and many schools around the world have and are trying various forms of it. It is based on the global evidence of effective professional learning. But the improvement cycle has also failed many times. It fails when it is used in isolation. To make it effective – to truly get the improvements in teaching and learning we have been looking for – requires a strategy that continually develops and reinforces effective professional learning.

A strategy to improve professional learning and teacher development

For this to result in actual improvement, a reform strategy must recognise the difficulties of shifting the way teachers work together and teach their students in thousands of schools. It requires multiple change leaders in schools to lead and role-model effective collaborative professional learning. It requires new evaluation and accountability policies to continually reinforce these new ways of working in a school. And it targets resources to enable it all to happen.

New professional learning leaders to lead the change in schools

To transform the way people work every day, in every classroom, in every school, requires strong leadership with specific skills in how people and organisations can change and move away from their usual practice. All of these high-performing systems recognise how difficult this is, so they have developed new leadership positions in schools and across the system. These new leaders are regularly trained alongside school principals, so each school has multiple leaders acting to change the way people work to ensure that teachers’ individual and collective professional learning is meeting school objectives.

Importantly, the new leaders are teachers; they are peer leaders, chosen from the teaching force to lead professional learning in each school. They often remain in the classroom on a part-time basis. Part of the reason they are effective is that other teachers are more likely to change the way they work when they see colleagues – not just official leaders – role-modelling effective practices.

Evaluation and accountability should be structured to improve professional learning

Too often, policymakers are told they have to choose between strategies emphasising accountability or development. So when a young teacher is not getting the professional development she needs – her mentor is not improving her teaching or her school principal has development days that target the wrong areas – it is often viewed as a problem with teacher professional development policies. In high-performing systems this would also be viewed as a problem of accountability. In these systems, accountability focuses not only on student performance, but also on the quality of instruction and professional learning.

Teachers in Shanghai will not be promoted unless they can demonstrate that they are collaborative. Similarly, mentors will not be promoted unless the teachers they mentor improve. School principals in British Columbia must prove that they are following an improvement cycle, and that it is improving results. If professional learning programs in Shanghai schools are considered to be of low quality, then the central office will take over much of the school’s professional learning.

Teachers need time for professional learning

A common problem preventing the development of effective professional learning in many systems is a lack of time. Teachers simply do not have sufficient time in the day for taking up effective professional learning. Shanghai provides the clearest example of a system that commits a large amount of time to teacher professional learning. They focus on the quality rather than the quantity of teaching. The average teacher in Shanghai teaches for only 10-12 hours per week. Considerable time is allocated to professional learning. But Shanghai is an outlier even amongst high-performing systems. For example, British Columbia made huge gains with only 1-2 periods per week allocated to formal professional learning.

Reform can start with small changes          

Importantly, creating effective professional learning does not require a complete overhaul of education policy. Progress in high-performing systems came through incremental improvements. For example, Singapore did not implement all of its reforms in one go: it changed one aspect at a time over many years, pragmatically trying what worked and discarding what did not work until it achieved a finely balanced approach.

This report offers a roadmap for reform: namely, to emphasise an improvement cycle as the key to school improvement and to build the leadership, capacity, and accountability for the quality of the improvement cycle in schools. Over time, this transforms the improvement cycle into a culture of continuous professional learning that turns schools into true learning organisations. When this occurs we will get the improvements in student learning that we all hope for.


Click here to read the report.

Click here for the Australian edition of the report.